If you've been watching the Web for a while you've probably noticed it is changing. When the Web first entered into the public consciousness, it was a way to distribute documents. These documents were pretty easy to make. Anybody with a weekend and a text editor couldget a Web page up and running. Building a Web site in the early days was about making documents. Today the Internet is much more than that. Interesting Web sites are not simply documents; they are applications. They have much more complexity and power. You might think the Web is no longer a place for individuals or beginning programmers. Many of the software development tools available are expensive and complicated.
Seriously though, was there life before the Web? Growing up today, one would hardly think so. The advent of the Internet has provided a basis for communication unparalleled in the history of mankind, with people both young and not so young using it as a means for shopping, learning, and communicating. In just a few short years following its inception, aspiring entrepreneurs have made it big, corporate empires have been built and lost, and entire economies are booming, all due in part to the vision of Tim Berners-Lee and his colleagues that the world might one day be interconnected via hyperlinks.
In January 2003, LSA Development, Marketing and Communications (DMC) launched the new College of LSA website. Besides the complete graphical redesign, new audience-based architecture and revision of content, this was also the first site in the College to utilize the Vignette Content Management System (CMS) Version 6. Implementing a CMS for web content offers numerous benefits to people publishing and maintaining web pages, as well as to the students, faculty, staff, alumni and others who visit these websites: departments & units using the CMS have the ability to add or edit web content without needing any HTML, resulting in websites that are more current and useful.
Drupal provides an elegantly designed and powerfully implemented mechanism for storing content as extensible, modifiable objects with various properties called nodes. Every major release of Drupal contains many enhancements and new features but the node system, at its core, has seen very little change due to its straightforward and simple design. For this very reason, a strong understanding of how Drupal’s node system works is important to understanding Drupal itself, both as a developer and an administrator. It can, however, be difficult to understand just how nodes work. In particular, administrators and developers tend to have a difficult time wrapping their heads around the ways in which Drupal modules can modify the node structure.
This session is an important step for any potential Drupal developer to quickly get up to speed with what is arguably Drupal’s most important feature - its node system. Many potential Drupal developers have used the node system for years either without knowing it, or without fully understanding it. An understanding of the basic features of Drupal’s node system, how and when nodes are modified, and being able to identify where and when that modification happens are key objectives to becoming a better Drupal developer. This session helps lay the foundation required for Drupal developers to write modules and themes that work with Drupal’s node system.
First, I want to say this is a beginner tutorial on including files with PHP. However, even if you are an intermediate or slightly beyond user, this tutorial may benefit you in some way because we are going to discuss some security features.
The main purpose of this tutorial is to kick off the new "Beginner" series of PHP tutorials. These tutorials will cover many of the common problems and questions, or misconceptions that we have seen on our forums and throughout the net regarding PHP. This tutorial will be fairly short, so even if you've been working with PHP for a while, you may still want to read on.
Pure functional programs fulfill properties which can be derived solely from the types of their functions, especially from types of parametric polymorphic functions. These properties are called parametricity results, or more commonly, free theorems. First only considered for the polymorphic lambda calculus of Girard and Reynolds, research has studied how adding aspects of current functional programming languages like Haskell influence the expressiveness of such free theorems. These aspects cover undefined values, fixpoint combinators and selective strictness. The contribution of this thesis is to subsume these results in one common scheme and to enhance it with other aspects of Haskell, namely simple type classes and three kinds of user-defined data types. Additionally, several simplifications commonly used in deriving free theorems are identified. Based on these theoretic foundations, an implementation is described which allows to automatically generate free theorems.
According to [Str67], parametric polymorphic functions behave uniformly at every type. In functional programming languages based on the polymorphic lambda calculus of Girard and Reynolds [Gir72, Rey74], this concept is captured by parametricity theorems [Rey83, Wad89]. In [Wad89], it was then pointed out how these theorems may be used to derive properties of functions, especially of parametric polymorphic ones, solely from the their types, that is, virtually for free. This is the reason why the results obtained from parametricity theorems are also called free theorems.
The computer gaming industry began in the 1970s with Pong, and has grown with the progress of computing technology into a billion-dollar industry. Todays commercial games are sophisticated pieces of software and may be written in hundreds of thousands of lines of code. Most commercial games require one to three years to develop in contrast to the development cycle typical of games in past. Most of the development cycle involves initial programming and then lengthy testing and changes to the initial code.
Many game developers are concerned with the length of game development cycles, as longer game development cycles mean higher costs and a longer period before there is a return on investment.
There has always been the necessity to have a definitive guide on PHP?Nuke. This tutorial describes the installation and structure of PHP?Nuke and the details of customizing the front end to suit the users' needs. The architecture of PHP?Nuke, with its modules, blocks, topics and themes is presented in detail, as well as the interplay of PHP and MySQL for the creation of a mighty content management system (CMS).It also delves into more advanced issues, like the programming of PHP?Nuke blocks and modules.
This book is born as a "thank you" to all the users who visit spaghettibrain. There has always been the necessity to have a definitive guide on PHP?Nuke, possibly in Italian language. Due to time constraints, nobody has ever had the will to carry out this operation.
The Objective-C language is a simple computer language designed to enable sophisticated object-oriented programming. Objective-C is defined as a small but powerful set of extensions to the standard ANSI C language. Its additions to C are mostly based on Smalltalk, one of the first object-oriented programming languages. Objective-C is designed to give C full object-oriented programming capabilities, and to do so in a simple and straightforward way.
Most object-oriented development environments consist of several parts:
An object-oriented programming language
A library of objects
A suite of development tools
A runtime environment
This document is about the first component of the development environment—the programming language. It fully describes the Objective-C language, and provides a foundation for learning about the second component, the Mac OS X Objective-C application frameworks—collectively known as Cocoa. You can start to learn more about Cocoa by reading Getting Started with Cocoa. The two main development tools you use are Xcode and Interface Builder, described in Xcode Workspace Guide and Interface Builder respectively. The runtime environment is described in a separate document, Objective-C 2.0 Runtime Programming Guide.
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