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Laryngitis from Reflux: Prevention for the Performing Singer

Laryngitis is the bane of performers and other professionals who depend on their voice for their art and livelihood. Almost every person has experienced acute laryngitis, usually associated with a viral upper- respiratory infection. Whenever there is inflammation of the vocal fold epithelium, there is an effect on voice quality and strength. Therefore, it is important to understand the factors that can cause laryngitis, especially the preventable causes of laryngitis.

Exchange Rates, Equity Prices and Capital Flows

The last 25 years have been characterized by a remarkable increase in international capital mobility. While gross cross-border transactions in bond and equity for the U.S. were equivalent to only 4 percent of GDP in 1975, this share increased to 100 percent in the early 1990sandhasgrown to 245 percent by 2000. Furthermore, a growing proportion of these capital flows consists of equity a sop posed to bank loans or government bonds. The increasing size and equity content of current capital flows has not yet inspired anew financial market paradigm for exchange rate theory, in which exchange rates, equity market returns and capital flows are jointly determined.

How Does Background Risk Affect Investment Risk-taking? Evidence from Insurers' Corporate Bond Portfolios

Insurance companies are important investors in the bond market. According to the 2004 Best Aggregate and Average Reports, insurance companies on average invest over 55 percent of their total assets in bonds. Their role in the corporate bond sector is especially prominent. According to the Federal Reserve's Flow of Funds accounts (fourth Quarter, 2000), insurance companies hold about one-third of outstanding corporate bonds in the late 1990s.

Market Making in International Capital Markets: Challenges and Benefits of its Implementation in Emerging Markets

It is well documented that two of the main problems that emerging markets face are capital supply shortage and low liquidity (Comerton-Forde and Rydge, 2006; O'Hara, 2001; Kairys et al., 2000). Market regulators in these countries can consider a number of restructuring measures to alleviate these problems: introduction of market segmentation (i.e., segmenting trading hours, creating main and parallel markets), implementation of trading phases (i.e., offering both continuous and call auction trading in a day), or provision of special incentives for the submission of limit orders (i.e., offering hidden orders and standing orders).

Government Intervention in the Foreign Exchange Market

Advanced economies with well-developed financial markets, credible monetary policies, and a broad nexus of commercial partners generally allowed market forces to determine their exchange rates. Flexible exchange rates provide these economies with a higher degree of monetary-policy independence and with greater protection from idiosyncratic economic shocks than any system of fixed parities possibly could. The Bretton Woods system collapsed, after all, because of Europe's displeasure with a high, U.S. determined inflation rate and because of the uneven impact of oil price shocks.

Manifestations And Management Of Chronic Insomnia In Adults

Insomnia, or inability to sleep, is the most commonly reported sleep problem in the industrialized world.1Estimates suggest that between 40 and 70 million Americans are affected by either intermittent or chronic sleep problems, representing approximately 20 percent of the population.2The Sleep in America Poll, conducted by the National Sleep Foundation, revealed that almost 50 percent of people surveyed had complaints of frequent insomnia, but only 6 percent were formally diagnosed. Moreover, approximately, 30 to 35 percent of respondents complained of nightly insomnia. The most prevalent symptoms of insomnia, experienced at least a few nights a week by people with insomnia, include waking up feeling unrefreshed (34 percent) and being awake often during the night (32 percent). The symptoms of difficulty falling asleep and waking up too early are less common, but still experienced at least a few nights a week by about one-fourth of adults with insomnia (23 to 24 percent).

Fiscal Policy and Financial Markets

How do financial markets react to fiscal policy decisions of sovereign borrowers? To our knowledge, relatively few studies have focused on the effects of fiscal policies on sovereign bond spreads. None of them has covered emerging markets, where the issue is particularly relevant. To empirically examine the effect of fiscal policies, it is of obvious importance to have the correct measurement for these policies. Most empirical studies have included some measure of the fiscal deficit in the macroeconomic fundamentals affecting spreads.

The Foreign Exchange Options Markets in a Small Open Economy

In small open economies international trade plays a major role in the economic life of the country. It is an important part of GDP and contributes to the welfare of the economy. International transactions, involving goods and services or financial ones require exchange of currencies.

Liquidity and Efficiency in Three Related Foreign Exchange Options Markets

In small open economies international trade plays a major role in the economic life of the country. It is an important part of GDP and contributes to the welfare of the economy. International transactions, involving goods and services or financial ones require exchange of currencies.

Stock and Bond Market Interaction: Does Momentum Spill Over?

This paper examines the relation between momentum in equities and corporate bonds. The market for corporate bonds is large, both in size and breadth; indeed, at the of end of 1996, according to the Lehman Fixed Income Database (LIFB), there were more than 1,500 investment grade bonds (rating of BBB or higher) trading with an aggregate face value exceeding 250 billion dollars. Yet, there are relatively few studies examining the cross-sectional predictability of returns in the corporate bond market.

Exercising With a Hernia

The first thing to keep in mind is that once a weakness in the abdominal wall has allowed a hernia to develop, it will tend to enlarge. The patient will need to take very careful note of the precise size and form of the hernia, and if it shows any sign of increasing, then it will be essential to ease off whatever activity is likely to have been the cause of the change. One should ensure that as far as possible it is always supported, and avoid the temptation ever to allow stress on it unsupported "just this once". Ten seconds of that could mean ten years of problems.

What I need to know about Constipation

Constipation means different things to different people. You may have constipation if you have three or fewer bowel movements in a week or if stool is hard, dry, painful, or difficult to pass. Some people with constipation lack energy and feel full or bloated. Some people think they have constipation if they don't have a bowel movement every day. However, bowel habits are different for everyone. The foods you eat, how much you exercise, and other factors can affect your bowel habits.

Estimating Indices in the Presence of Seller Reservation Prices

Virtually all financial indices are constructed from transactions prices. For very liquid markets such as the New York Stock Exchange, in which assets trade every day, the weighted average price adequately captures daily market dynamics. But for less liquid markets, such as the bond market, the housing market and the art market, the average observed transaction price might not be as informative. In fact, even the construction of an intra-day index of the NYSE poses a challenge due to illiquidity.

Risk Overhang and Loan Portfolio Decisions

Commercial banks play a central role in the supply of credit. About one-third of all household debt is obtained from commercial banks, and about two-fifths of all small businesses obtain some form of credit from a commercial bank. Recent theory suggests that, when external finance is costly, value-maximizing banks make asset allocation and capital budgeting decisions in a risk-averse manner: they base new lending decisions not only on expected loan returns, but also on their available capital and on the covariance of these returns with their existing loan portfolio.

The Effect of Stock Price on Discretionary Disclosure

When a manager is concerned with his firm's stock price, his disclosure decisions likely depend on what he expects the stock market reaction to his private information to be. This paper tests the hypothesis that the manager characterizes his private information relative to the firm's stock price and that changes in the stock price can affect the manager's incentives to disclose. In particular, I investigate whether managers tend to withhold information with negative value implications (bad news), releasing this information once a stock price decline transforms it into good news (i.e., relative to the lower stock price).

PDF Ebook Acupuncture For Weight Loss

Acupuncture is not a panacea or a wonder cure in the treatment of weight control. But, acupuncture is effective in making it easier to lose and maintain that loss if the patient is willing to change their lifestyle. The exact mechanism by which acupuncture works is unknown but we know that acupuncture needles inserted into specific points on the body and in the ear release endorphins which have a calming and relaxing effect that makes it easier to deal with stress, frustration and anxiety that can trigger overeating and bingeing on fattening foods. Also endorphins affect the digestive and hormonal systems so acupuncture can help rebalance the organ systems that are running too fast- or in this case too slow , the metabolism and the will power.

Real Asset Illiquidity and the Cost of Capital

Understanding what are the underlying sources of risk that drive the cross-sectional and time-series variation in firms' cost of capital is of fundamental interest in financial economics. Previous work, including recent studies by Pástor, Sinha, and Swaminathan (2008) and Chava and Purnanandam (2010) which highlight the importance of using ex-ante measures of the cost of capital, shed light on this question.

How acupuncture can help

Acupuncture is a tried and tested system of traditional medicine, which has been used in China and other eastern cultures for thousands of years to restore, promote and maintain good health. Its benefits are now widely acknowledged all over the world, and in the past decade traditional acupuncture has begun to feature more prominently in mainstream healthcare in the UK. In conjunction with needling, the practitioner may use techniques such as moxibustion, cupping, massage or electro-acupuncture. They may also suggest dietary or lifestyle changes.

Experimental Investigation Of Crude Oil Desalting And Dehydration

As most oil fields are growing older, resulting in wet crude oil production, it is necessary to provide desalting =dehydration systems to separate the oil and water before the oil can be further processed. Oil desalting=dehydration is the process of removing water-soluble salts from an oil stream. With the increasing regulations on effluent water and the ever- increasing cost of producingabarrel of oil, the use of emulsion-treatment plants has become an important practice in crude oil processing. Treat- mentofemulsions has always ranged from simple methods such as gravity settlement to highly sophisticated methods such astri-volted desalting and dehydration systems.

Private Equity Funds: Valuation, Systematic Risk and Illiquidity

Investments in private equity have become an increasingly significant portion of institutional portfolios as investors seek diversification benefits relative to traditional stock and bond investments. Despite the increasing importance of the private equity asset class, we have only a limited understanding of the economics of private equity funds-the typical vehicle through which private equity investments are made. Particularly, three questions are mostly unresolved in the current private equity literature: (i) What is the value of a private equity fund and how does it develop overtime? (ii) How does a fund's expected return and systematic risk changeover time? (iii) How does illiquidity affect fund values and expected returns?

Extrapolative Expectations and the Equity Premium

There is a growing body of evidence that many investors think high past stock market returns predict high future returns (e.g., De Bondt (1993), Durell (2001)), even though there is no support for this belief in the data (Fa ma and French (1988b)). This paper argues that the interaction between these extrapolative investors and sophisticated investors with rational expectations can resolve the long-standing equity premium puzzle of Mehra and Prescott (1985) if the elasticity of intertemporal substitution (EIS) is greater than 1.

Leverage change, debt overhang, and stock prices

The choice of capital structure is arguably one of the most important decisions managers face, and a change in leverage ratio can affect a firm's financing capacity, risk, cost of capital, investment and strategic decisions, and ultimately shareholder wealth. Since Modigliani and Miller (1958), many authors have examined firms' capital structure choice and its relation with other firm characteristics. In this paper, we examine how the stock price of a firm reacts to the aggregate change of its capital structure.

Funding Growth in Bank-Based and Market-Based Financial Systems: Evidence from Firm Level Data

A key question in development economics is the relation between a country's financial system and its economic development. Historians such as Gerschenkron (1962) have sought to explain a perceived relation between the differences in the pattern of economic development between Britain and the Continental European economies and the differences between bank-based and market based financial systems. More recently, the differences in the relative performance of the Japanese and the US economies have led observers to conclude that bank-based and market-based financial systems may produce different growth patterns.

Firm Size, Debt Capacity, and the Pecking Order of Financing Choices

The pecking order theory of capital structure (Myers (1984), Myers and Majluf (1984)) hypothesizes that the primary determinant of firms' financing decisions is the problem of information asymmetry about firm quality between firm insiders and outsiders. Aware of their informational disadvantage, external investors demand a lemons premium (Akerlof (1970)) that raises the required rate of return on external capital relative to its full- information level. Faced with this problem, firm managers acting in the interests of existing shareholders follow a pecking order of financing choices.

Inferring Default Correlation from Equity Return Correlation

Default correlation is an important piece of information for risk management of credit portfolios because portfolio managers must accurately estimate portfolio losses that depend on joint default events between obligors in a portfolio. Das, Fong and Geng (2001) find that default rates of debts in credit portfolios are significantly correlated and estimates of credit losses are substantially different if default correlation is ignored.

The Impact of Business Environment on Management Accounting Practices: Libyan Evidence

It is widely agreed that the business environment within which organisations operate affects management accounting systems used in these organisations (Amat, Carmona and Reborts, 1994; Hoque and Hopper, 1997; Bhimani, 1992; Anderson and Lanen, 1999; Haldma and Laats, 2002). This association is described as a cause effect relationship where any change in the business environment will cause change in management accounting systems (Kaplan, 1985; Wijewardena and De Zoysa, 1999).

Financial Architecture and Economic Performance: International Evidence

An important long-standing issue in corporate finance has been the relative merits of banks and financial markets as providers of capital. A macro-economic version of this question is whether the financial architecture of an economy i.e. the degree to which its financial system is bank-oriented or market-based has any impact on economic performance in the real sector. Does a financial architecture anchored on markets work better than one centered on banks, and if so, under what conditions?

How Does Creditor's Liquidation Decision Affect Debt and Equity Values?

Over the years the studies about the values of corporate debt and equity have attracted a fair amount of attention. Since Merton (1974) valued the corporate debt and equity using option pricing model, the structural models have emerged as a new approach for the studies of credit risk.

Pricing Credit Risk in Commercial Mortgages

In this paper we price credit risk in commercial mortgages using a double-trigger default model that considers both term default and balloon risk. The model interactively uses asset prices and property cash flows to estimate default risk, assuming that a borrower's default decision is based on both contemporaneous Loan-To-Value (LTV) and contemporaneous Debt Service Coverage (DSC). Additionally, we explicitly measure the effect of balloon risk on mortgage pricing, as borrowers with a mortgage that is not in default at maturity may not meet the underwriting standards to refinance the loan and therefore have difficulty paying off the debt.

Industry Growth and Capital Allocation: Does Having a Market- or Bank-Based System Matter?

Financial economists have debated the relative merits of bank-based and market-based financial systems for over a century. Many authors stress the advantages that banks have over markets in financing the expansion of existing firms, in promoting the establishment of new firms, and in efficiently allocating capital. Others, however, emphasize the comparative merits of markets. Historically, empirical research on the bank-based versus market-based debate has centered on Germany and Japan as bank-based systems and the United States and Great Britain as market-based financial systems.

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